Utilizing the Response to Resistance survey results from more than 60,000 respondents, Sam’s Expert Witness services have successfully outlined for juries how and why the actions of an officer were “objectively reasonable” responses to resistance and aggression given a certain set of circumstances. Backed by proven data, his testimony is highly effective in countering and defeating opponents with unsupported and unscientific opinions. The RTR approach has been critical to the defense of law enforcement agencies across the country.

Let these proven legal services become an integral component of your risk management program.

Expert Witness Services

Case File Review

Use of Force Policy Analysis

Liability Risk Reduction Seminars



The Response to Resistance Research was used by a major mid-western city to successfully defend itself against imposition of a consent decree by the US Justice Department alleging “excessive use of force”. Using an incident tracking program modeled on the Action Response Continuum – the department was able to prove that force was threatened or used in less than one percent of all police/citizen contacts. When force was used, all such actions were examined by supervisors to determine compliance with departmental and legal guidelines.

Sam Faulkner
Expert Witness Services
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